Electric bicycle controller is the core control device used to control the start, run, advance and retreat, speed, stop and other electronic devices of electric bicycle. It is like the brain of electric bicycle and an important part of electricbicycle. At present, electric bicycles mainly include electric bicycles, electric two-wheeled motorcycles, electric tricycles, electric three-wheeled motorcycles, electric four-wheelers, battery cars, etc., electric vehicle controller also because of different.
Electric bike controller from the structure of two, we call it separated and integral.
- Separation: the so-called separation refers to the separation of the controller body and the display part. The latter is mounted on the handlebars, and the controller body is hidden in the car box or electric box, not exposed to the outside. In this way, the connection distance between the controller and the power supply and motor is shortened, and the appearance of the car body is simple.
- All-in-one: the control part and the display part are integrated in a delicate special plastic box. The box is installed in the center of the handlebar. There are a number of small holes in the panel of the box. The aperture is 4-5mm and transparent waterproof film is applied externally. Light-emitting diode (led) is arranged in the corresponding position of the hole to indicate the speed, power and remaining battery power.
The main function
Ultra-quiet design technology: unique current control algorithm can be applied to any brushless electric vehicle motor, and has a considerable control effect, improve the general adaptability of electric vehicle controller, so that electric vehicle motor and controller no longer need to match.
Constant current control technology: the plugging current of electric vehicle controller is completely consistent with the dynamic running current, which guarantees the battery life and improves the starting torque of electric vehicle motor.
Automatic recognition of motor model system: automatic identification electric motor commutation Angle, hole phase and output phase, as long as the controller and the power cord, turn the brake line is not wrong, can automatically identify the input and output of the motor model, it saves on the brushless electric motor wiring, greatly reduce the operating requirements of electric vehicle controller.
Follow-up: the abs system has reverse charge/EABS car brake function, the introduction of auto level EABS anti-lock technology, achieved the effect of EABS brake mute, soft, no matter in any speed to guarantee the comfort and stability of the brake, won’t appear the original abs under the condition of low speed brake non-stop phenomenon, does not damage the motor, reduce mechanical braking and mechanical braking pressure, reduce the brake noise, greatly increases the security of the braking; In addition, when braking, decelerating or sliding downhill, the energy generated by EABS is fed back to the battery to play a counter-charging effect, so as to maintain the battery, extend the battery life and increase the driving range. Users can adjust the braking depth of EABS according to their riding habits.
Motor lock system: in the alert state, the controller will lock the motor automatically when alarming, the controller has almost no power consumption, no special requirements for the motor, in the case of battery voltage or other abnormal conditions on the normal implementation of electric vehicles without any impact.
Self-checking function: dynamic self-checking and static self-checking, controller as long as in the electrical state, will automatically detect the related interface state, such as transfer, brake handle or other external switch, etc., once appear, fault, automatic controller to implement protection, fully ensure the safety of cycling when troubleshooting the protection of the controller state automatically restored.
Reverse charging function: feed back the energy generated by EABS to the battery when braking, decelerating or sliding downhill, so as to have the effect of reverse charging, so as to maintain the battery, extend the battery life and increase the range.
Blocking rotation protection function: automatically judge whether the motor is in the state of complete blocking rotation or running state or short circuit state of the motor when overcurrent occurs. If the motor is running state when overcurrent occurs, the controller sets the current limit value at a fixed value to maintain the driving capacity of the whole vehicle. If the motor is in pure blocking state, the controller will control the current limit value below 10A after 2 seconds to protect the motor and battery and save energy. If the motor is in short circuit state, the controller controls the output current below 2A to ensure the safety of the controller and the battery.
Dynamic and static phase loss protection: when the motor is running and any phase of the electric vehicle motor breaks down, the controller shall protect it to avoid the motor burning, and at the same time protect the electric vehicle battery and extend the battery life.
Dynamic protection function of power tube: when the controller is running dynamically, it can monitor the working condition of the power tube in real time. Once the power tube is damaged, the controller will protect it immediately to prevent the trolley from being laborious after damaging other power tubes due to chain reaction.
Anti-airspeed function: solve the airspeed phenomenon caused by turning handle or line fault of brushless electric vehicle controller, improve the safety of the system.
1+1 power function: users can adjust the use of automatic power or reverse power, to realize the auxiliary power in cycling, so that riders feel more relaxed.
Cruise function: automatic/manual cruise function is integrated, users can choose by themselves according to their needs, 8 seconds into cruise, stable driving speed, no need to handle control.
Mode switching function: users can switch to electric mode or power mode.
Anti-theft alarm function: ultra-quiet design, the introduction of automotive remote control anti-theft concept, anti-theft stability is higher, in the alarm state can lock the motor, alarm horn sound up to 125dB above, has a strong deterrent. And has the self-learning function, the remote control distance is up to 150 meters without error code.
Reversing function: the controller adds reversing function. When the user rides normally, the reversing function fails. When the user stops the car, press the back function button to perform auxiliary reversing, and the maximum speed of reversing is no more than 10km/h.
Remote control function: adopt advanced remote control technology, as long as 256 encryption algorithm, sensitivity multilevel adjustable, better encryption performance, and no repeat code phenomenon, greatly improve the stability of the system, and with self-learning function, remote control distance up to 150 meters without error code generation.
High speed control: adopt the latest single-chip microcomputer specially designed for motor control, add the new BLDC control algorithm, which is suitable for less than 6000rpm
High, medium or low speed motor control.
Motor phase: 60 degree 120 degree motor automatic compatibility, whether 60 degree motor or 120 degree motor, can be compatible, do not need to modify any Settings.
Controller circuit diagram
Briefly speaking, the controller is composed of peripheral devices and main chip (or single chip microcomputer). Peripheral devices are some functional devices, such as execution, sampling, etc., they are resistance, sensor, bridge switching circuit, as well as auxiliary single-chip microcomputer or special integrated circuit to complete the control process of devices; Microcontroller is also called the micro controller, is a integrated on a chip in the storage, transformation decoder, sawtooth wave signal generator and function of pulse width modulation circuit and can make the switch circuit power tube conduction or cut-off, by square wave control conduction time of power tube to control the drive circuit of the motor speed, input and output ports, such as integrated together, and a computer chip. This is the intelligent controller of electric bicycle. It is a high-tech product in the guise of a fool.
Controller design quality, characteristics, the use of microprocessor function, power switching device circuit and peripheral device layout, directly related to the vehicle performance and operation state, but also affect the performance and efficiency of the controller itself. Controller of different quality, used in the same car, with the same set of batteries with the same charging and discharging state, sometimes also show a big difference in driving ability.
The electric bike motor control system generally consists of electric motor, power converter, sensor and electric vehicle controller.
According to the complexity of the control algorithm, the suitable microprocessor system should be selected for the electric motor control system. Some simple ones are single-chip controllers, and some complicated ones are DSP controllers. The newly developed special chip for motor driving can meet the requirements of motor control of auxiliary systems. For electric vehicle motor controller, DSP processor should be used. The control circuit mainly includes the following parts: control chip and its drive system, AD sampling system, power module and its drive system, hardware protection system, position detection system, bus support capacitance, etc.
The power main circuit adopts the three-phase inverter full bridge as shown in FIG. 4-32, where the main power switching device is IG-BT. In the state of high current and high frequency switching, the stray inductance from electrolytic capacitor to power switching module has a great influence on the energy consumption of the power circuit and the peak voltage of the module. Therefore, the cascade bus substrate is adopted to make the stray inductance of the circuit as small as possible, so as to adapt to the characteristics of low voltage and high current of the control system.
New development pattern
After a decade of rapid development, electric bicycles, a livelihood product, are as indispensable to the people as firewood, rice, oil and salt. According to relevant statistics, by the end of 2013, the electric vehicle ownership in the national market has reached 150 million, and the electric vehicle industry has also stepped into the inflection point from the growth and maturity stage with the development law of product life cycle, and the recession seems inevitable. Electric vehicle industry marketing three axes:
The classic economic principle of diminishing marginal utility has become increasingly ineffective in advertising, promotion and price wars, and all electric car manufacturers are at a loss. Because of the special nature of the industry, the grass-roots label has been accompanied by the growth of the electric vehicle industry. It is precisely because of this special nature of grassroots, e-bike more close to people’s needs, creating a decade of explosive growth of e-bike industry myth.