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What is an electric bike motor

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Electric bike motor is used for electric bicycles drive motor. Depending on its use environment and frequency, the form is also different. Different types of motors have different characteristics. At present, permanent magnet dc motor is widely used in electric bicycle motor. Electric bicycle motor is divided according to the electrified form of the motor, which can be divided into brush motor and brushless motor two categories; According to the mechanical structure of the motor assembly, generally divided into “tooth” (motor speed high, need to go through gear reduction) and “toothless” (motor torque output without any reduction) two categories.

1.Permanent magnet dc motor:

By stator pole, rotor, brush, housing, etc.

Stator pole using permanent magnets (permanent magnetic steel), ferrite, aluminum nickel cobalt, ndfeb and other materials. According to its structure, it can be divided into cylinder type and tile type.

The rotor is generally made of silicon steel laminated, enameled wire is wound between two slots of the rotor core (three slots have three windings), and its joints are respectively welded on the metal sheet of the commutator.

Brush is a conductive component connecting the power supply and the rotor winding. Permanent magnet motor brush using a single metal sheet or metal graphite brush, graphite brush.

 

2.Brushless motor:

It is composed of permanent magnet rotor, multi-pole winding stator and position sensor.

Brushless dc motor is characterized by brushless, using semiconductor switching devices (such as hall element) to achieve electronic commutation, that is, electronic switching devices to replace the traditional contact commutator and brush. It has the advantages of high reliability, no commutating spark and low mechanical noise. Position sensor according to the change of rotor position, along a certain sequence of stator winding current converter (i.e. to detect the rotor magnetic pole relative to the position of the stator winding, and in determining the location of the position sensor signal, the signal conversion circuit to control the power switch circuit, after processing according to certain logic relation between winding current switch).

 

3.High-speed permanent magnet brushless motor:

It is composed of stator core, magnetic steel rotor, sun wheel, deceleration clutch, hub shell and so on. A hall sensor can be mounted on the motor cover for speed measurement. There are three types of position sensors: magnetic, photoelectric and electromagnetic. A brushless dc motor with a magnetically sensitive position sensor is installed on the stator assembly, and the magnetically sensitive sensor parts (such as hall element, magnetically sensitive diode, magnetically sensitive tube, magnetically sensitive resistor or special integrated circuit, etc.) are used to detect the changes of magnetic field generated by permanent magnet and rotor rotation. Hall components are used extensively in electric cars. The brushless dc motor with photoelectric position sensor is equipped with photoelectric sensor parts in a certain position on the stator assembly. The rotor is equipped with a light shield and the light source is led or small bulb. When the rotor rotates, the photosensitive components on the stator will generate pulse signals intermittently at a certain frequency due to the role of the shader.

Using electromagnetic position sensor brushless dc motor, is in the electromagnetic sensors are installed on the stator component parts (such as the coupling transformer, close to switch, LC resonance circuit, etc.), when the permanent magnet rotor position changes, electromagnetic effect will make the electromagnetic sensor produces high frequency modulation signal (the amplitude changes with the rotor position). The working voltage of the stator winding is provided by an electronic switching circuit controlled by the output of the position sensor.

 

Comparison of brush motor and brushless motor

Brush motor and brushless motor on the principle of the difference: brush motor is mechanical commutation by carbon brush and commutator, brushless motor is by huo

The induction signal of the ear element completes the electronic commutation by the controller.

Brush motor and brushless motor electrification principle is not the same, its internal structure is not the same. For hub motors, the output mode of motor torque (whether decelerated by gear reduction mechanism or not) is different, and its mechanical structure is also different.

1.Common high-speed brush motor internal mechanical structure. The hub-type motor is composed of built-in high-speed brush motor core, reduction gear set, overrunning clutch, hub-end cover and other components. High-speed brushing-hub motor belongs to the inner rotor motor.

2.Common low speed brush motor internal mechanical structure. The hub-type motor is composed of carbon brush, phase changer, motor rotor, motor stator, motor shaft, motor end cover, bearing and other parts. Low speed brushless hub motor belongs to the outer rotor motor.

3.Common high-speed brushless motor internal mechanical structure. The hub-type motor is composed of built-in high-speed brushless motor core, planetary friction roller, overload clutch, output flange, end cover, hub-type housing and other components. High-speed brushless hub motor belongs to the inner rotor motor.

4.Common low speed brushless motor internal mechanical structure. The hub-type motor is composed of motor rotor, motor stator, motor shaft, motor end cover, bearing and other parts. Low speed brushless and gearless hub motor belongs to the outer rotor motor.

 

Brushless motor is widely used in electric bicycles, because it has the following two advantages over the traditional brushless dc motor.

(1) long life, maintenance-free, high reliability. In the brush dc motor, because the motor speed is higher, the brush and commutator wear faster, generally work about 1000 hours need to replace the brush. In addition, the reduction gear box is technically difficult, especially the lubrication problem of the transmission gear, which is a big problem in the brush scheme. Therefore, the brush motor has the problems of high noise, low efficiency and easy failure. Therefore, the advantages of brushless dc motor is obvious.

(2) high efficiency and energy saving. Generally speaking, because the brushless dc motor has no mechanical commutation friction loss and gear box consumption, as well as speed control circuit loss, the efficiency can usually be higher than 85%, but considering the highest cost performance in the actual design, in order to reduce the material consumption, the general design is 76%. The efficiency of the brushless dc motor is usually around 70% due to the consumption of the gearbox and overrunning clutch.

 

Due to the development of new energy vehicles, electric bicycle motor used in the market has become a key sales direction, although many domestic companies claim to have the whole industry chain of scientific research strength, but must be a really good motor need long-term technical accumulation, and then to manufacture, test, and eventually go in mass production. Few automobile enterprises in China have the real strength to make new energy motors, especially in the field of passenger vehicles. Under the background that various enterprises strongly advocate the core autonomy, they are reluctant to show that the motor link, as one of the core components of new energy vehicles, is still under the control of others. In China, there are many enterprises that are reputed to be new energy motors, but few of them are specialized in new energy motors. Many enterprises change from traditional machinery, shipbuilding and other traditional industrial motor fields to enter the field of new energy drive motors, with little research and development and production experience.

 

Although the traditional industrial motor and the new energy vehicle motor in principle is the same, but there is no difference in the actual manufacturing. The motors used in new energy vehicles can be divided into asynchronous motor and permanent magnet motor, the former is mainly used in public transport, passenger transport and other commercial vehicles, while the latter is mainly used in passenger vehicles. Because the rotor of asynchronous motor has no winding, no brush, no magnetic induction, low efficiency of power conversion, simple structure, relatively cheap price, mainly used in large passenger cars; Permanent magnet motor motor rotor winding, brush power supply to the rotor, power conversion efficiency, more complex structure, the price is expensive, mainly used for the speed of the harsh environment, such as pure electric passenger cars. In this process, many motor supporting enterprises are rushing to start, making simple technical improvement of traditional industrial motors and providing them to vehicle manufacturers as motors of new energy vehicles.

 

But in foreign countries, the production of new energy vehicle motor there are a number of strict technical indicators. The output power of new energy vehicles, especially pure electric vehicles, is different in different road conditions, such as climbing, descending, flat road, bumpy road, etc. Many electric machinery factories in China only slightly improve the production experience of traditional industrial motors, without considering the use environment of new energy automobile motors, which will greatly shorten the service life and easily cause local overheating, short circuit and other dangerous situations. Since we all realize that electric vehicle motor will have a broad market in the future, why not strictly from the motor research and development, test, production control, as early as possible to carry out basic research, “calm down and start from scratch”, really form the electric bicycle motor industry chain, with a sound attitude in the face of available opportunities.

 

 

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