Electric bikes have become a means of transportation for many consumers. In the electric bike market with various brands, what brand of electric bike is good has become a topic concerned by many consumers. As a short distance travel tool, electric bike has many advantages such as environmental protection, economy, no traffic jam, etc. More and more people choose this low-carbon and environmentally friendly way of travel. So in the purchase of electric bike, which purchase skills?
TIPS1. Select quality. Pay attention to the choice of higher brand configuration, quality and after-sales service are guaranteed.
TIPS2. Choose models. The safety and performance of different models are quite different. Suggest choose and buy simple, portable.
TIPS3. See appearance. Pay attention to the surface smooth, glossiness, pay attention to welding, painting, plating quality.
TIPS4. Looking for a feeling. Test ride, feel the starting, acceleration, smooth running of the vehicle, comfortable operation of the vehicle, check the brake tightness, handlebar flexibility, wheel activity.
TIPS5. Checking procedures. Check whether the production license, operation manual and qualification certificate are valid and complete, and check whether the accessories are complete. Pay special attention to whether locally licensed vehicles.
TIPS6. See the configuration. Related important components, such as battery, motor, charger, controller, tire, brake handle, etc. It is better to choose the brushless motor.
E-bike Battery purchasing knowledge
I.Type and Introduction
In the electric bike market, the most commonly used is lead-acid maintenance-free ebike battery, AGM battery using glass fiber separator adsorption technology, and GEL battery using colloidal electrolyte technology.
The working principle of lead ebike battery is that the anode (PbO2) and cathode (Pb) in the lead battery are immersed in the electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid), generating 2V power between the two poles. The chemical change in the discharge is that the dilute sulfuric acid will react with the active substances on the anode and cathode to form a new compound “lead sulfate”. Sulfuric acid is released from the electrolyte by discharging sulfuric acid. The longer the discharge, the thinner the concentration of sulfuric acid. The components consumed are proportional to the discharge. The discharge or residual charge can be obtained by measuring the concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte, i.e., its specific gravity. Charging when discharge is a chemical change in the anode, cathode plate produced by the lead sulfate can be decomposed when charging back into sulfuric acid, lead and lead oxide, so the battery electrolyte concentration gradually increased, in which the proportion of the electrolyte, and back to the front of the discharge concentration gradually, these changes show the active material of battery is restored to the state of the power supply again, when the poles of the reduction of lead sulfate original active substances, which is equal to the end of charging, and the cathode plate will generate hydrogen, anode produces oxygen, charging to final stage, the current used in almost all the electrolysis of water and electrolyte will reduce, This should be supplemented with pure water.
AGM battery is a battery infused with dilute sulfuric acid, which is absorbed in the ultra-fine glass fiber separator and electrode plate, and there is almost no mobile electrohydraulic. Most of the electric bicycle batteries on the market are AGM batteries.
GEL type GEL cells have no free electroliquid after electrolyte GEL, and the probability of acid leakage is much smaller than the former type. The amount of perfusion is 10-15% more than dilute sulfuric acid, and the loss of water is less, so the colloidal battery will not fail due to water loss. The colloid injection increases the strength of the separator, protects the electrode plate, makes up for the defect of the separator’s acid contraction, and makes the assembly pressure not significantly reduced, which is one of the reasons for the prolonged battery life. The colloid fills the gap between the separator and the electrode plate, reducing the internal resistance of the battery and thus improving the charging acceptability. Therefore, the over-discharge, shaanxi recovery and low temperature charging and discharging performance of colloidal batteries are superior to AGM batteries. Colloidal cells are much more consistent than their AGM counterparts. There are four kinds of colloids produced in batch in China: gas phase colloids, silica sol, mixed sol and organosilicon polymer colloids.
The working principle of lithium ion battery is as follows: when the battery is charged, the lithium in the positive material is removed and enters into the negative graphite through the diaphragm. When the battery discharges, the lithium ions escape from the anode graphite and pass through the membrane back to the anode material. As the charge and discharge proceed, lithium ions are continuously embedded and released from the positive and negative poles.
Lithium ion battery is a kind of secondary battery, because it has a high energy density, large current charge and discharge, no memory effect, low cost of raw materials, environmentally friendly and many other advantages, so after the invention of the sales year by year rapidly increase, will become the winner of secondary battery in the future. Since its introduction in the 1990s, from button batteries in electronic products to lithium batteries in mobile phones and DC digital products, electric bicycles have also been applied. But lithium-ion batteries account for between a third and a half of the cost of an electric car, far more than lead-acid batteries. In addition, lithium battery is prone to safety problems due to its high specific energy and poor material stability. With the development of technology, lithium ion battery will become the development trend of high quality electric vehicle.
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II.The choice of battery points
AGM battery has the advantages of low cost and large discharge current, but it has the defects of narrow operating temperature range, easy loss of water and thermal runaway. GEL cells, on the other hand, have the advantages of high cost, stable performance, wide operating temperature range, resistance to overcharge and overdischarge, and long life. Because the electric bicycle battery in most cases belongs to the large current, deep cycle discharge, therefore, the electric bicycle battery is more suitable to choose the colloidal battery. Colloidal batteries have strong resistance to over discharge and strong electro-hydraulic preservation ability, which avoid the influence of over discharge on the battery and the phenomenon of thermal runaway caused by battery water loss.
All kinds of brand lead-acid battery charging characteristics of the basic same, but because of each manufacturer battery materials formula, such as the electrolyte concentration and content are different, the charging voltage have some differences, therefore, strictly speaking, should according to the specific requirements of the battery manufacturer to determine the battery charging voltage, otherwise easy to cause improper use of the battery.
The output power of the electric bicycle motor should match the rated power of the battery. Therefore, in order to extend the service life of the battery, the motor power of the electric bicycle should be less than the rated power of the battery as far as possible to avoid the battery working at full load or overload for a long time.
III.Reasonable use of ebike batteries
When the battery is used in series, if the internal resistance of the battery is inconsistent, the terminal voltage of the battery will be inconsistent in the process of charging and discharging, which will eventually cause the under-charging of the whole battery and premature failure. Therefore, in e-bike, the balance and consistency of the battery pack has a considerable impact on the battery life. For consumers, how to use the battery reasonably will also affect the balance and consistency of the battery to some extent, thus affecting the service life of the battery. According to the research and practical use of batteries over the years, it is suggested that consumers use batteries reasonably by the following methods.
(1) electric bike riding speed: 20-25km/h.
(2) cycling distance: 10-30km/ day, with discharge depth less than or equal to 70% (one deep discharge every two months).
(3) charging frequency: once a day.
(4) carrying capacity: single cycling (one child under 10 years old can be carried).
According to the above method, a good quality e-bike can reach 3-4 years or even 5 years in normal use, and the battery can last about one and a half years. The shallower the discharge depth, the longer the cycle life and the longer the battery life. Therefore, consumers generally believe that it is wrong to charge once for one cycle. In order to prolong the battery life, it is necessary to make the battery fully charged at all times. Under the condition of power loss for a long time, the negative plate of the battery is easily salinized, resulting in the loss of battery capacity and affecting the service life of the battery.
Iv. Battery maintenance
Qualified moped batteries by the battery manufacturers factory, the battery life and performance to some extent depends on the use and maintenance of consumers.
(1) matching of charger and battery.
Electric moped battery is bad, not bad, shows the importance of the charger and battery matching, there are two things: one is the new charger itself and the parameters of the battery manufacturer to provide does not match, the second is the poor quality of components of the charger itself, started to use as is match, as consumers charge and discharge cycle is used, the charger itself due to temperature rising, components ageing, produce the charging voltage and current drift, damaged cells.
(2) regular and timely supply of electricity.
The consumer has a kind of misunderstanding to the cycle service life that labels to use manual place normally, think to charge charge, the life of the battery decreases, wait for the electric energy of the battery to consume the protection voltage of controller 31.5V to begin to add power every time so, little imagine not only cannot protect the battery, and shortened battery life. So remind broad consumer, below the circumstance that may, answer to give battery in time complement report.
- It is strictly prohibited to continue riding when the indicator light shows under voltage. Some consumers ride in the middle of the road, the indicator light shows the condition of under-voltage, and then take a break to ride for a while, which is very harmful to the battery, serious over-discharge will make the battery salinization or lead dendrite formation, make the battery short circuit, affect the life.
- Electric moped just started, climbing, overload should try to help.
- When riding in rainy days, try to avoid wetting the switch and joint to prevent electricity leakage.
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